Tuesday, August 9, 2011


On the following list is a top 10 largest earthquake ever recorded in human’s history. As information, before 1900, we did not have seismometers or earthquake scaler to count the force of magnitude so the data is debatable. I also included Japan earthquake that happened less than 2 months ago
1. 1960 Valdivia earthquake, Magnitude 9.5, (Valdivia, Chile) May 22, 1960
largest earthquake Valdivia Earthquake  Top 10 Largest Earthquakes Ever Recorded
1960 Valdivia earthquake
The 1960 Valdivia earthquake holds the record the strongest earthquake in the world. The epicenter was located about 900 km south of Santiago and it was powerful enough to deliver 10.7 meters high Tsunami 10,000 km away from the epicenter. Death tool was about 5.700-6,000 lives

2. 1964 Alaska earthquake, Magnitude: 9.2 (Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA) March 27, 1964
largest earthquake great alaskan earthquake Top 10 Largest Earthquakes Ever Recorded
1964 Alaska earthquake
Some called it the Great Alaskan Earthquake. It occurred at 5:36 P.M and lasted for 4 minutes. The epicenter was located 78 miles east of Anchorage and 14 miles beneath the ground. It made cracks everywhere, property damages and murdered estimated 143 people
3. 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, Magnitude: 9.1-9.3 (Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Indonesia) December 26, 2004
largest earthquake sumatra earthquake Top 10 Largest Earthquakes Ever Recorded
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
Scientists classified 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake as underseas megathrust earthquake and it was the most devastating earthquake in 21st century that killed more than 239,210 peoples in14 countries (5th deadliest earthquake ever).The center of the earthquake was 30km under sea bed off the western sea-coast of northern Sumatra
4. 1952 Kamchatka earthquakes, Magnitude: 9.0 (Kamchatka, USSR) November 4, 1952
largest earthquake 1952 Kamchatka earthquakes Top 10 Largest Earthquakes Ever Recorded
1952 Kamchatka earthquakes
The 1952′s Kamchatka earthquake was big enough to cause destructions but it was not strong enough to take single human’s life. The hypocenter was located 30 km below the ground and it stole around a million dollar livestock and damaged buildings on the city
5.2011 Tōhoku earthquake, Magnitude: 9.0 (Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Japan) March 11, 2011
xn largest earthquake 2011 thoku earthquake 44g Top 10 Largest Earthquakes Ever Recorded
2011 Tōhoku earthquake
The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake is the newest deadliest earthquake in the list and it is remembered as the most expensive earthquake in human history, which was costing around $309 billion. Tohoku earthquake is similar as 2004′s Indian Ocean earthquake but the energy was bigger and more intense. The power was equal as about 600.000.000 Hiroshima bomb. After the 9.0 magnitude earthquake, 900 aftershocks emerged and around 13,705 casualties had to lose their lives during the course. Because the earthquake so powerful, it has shifted our earth axis by 25 cm. Consequently, this moment, a day is 1.8 microseconds shorter than before Tōhoku earthquake
6.1833 Sumatra earthquake, Magnitude: estimated 8.8-9.2 (Sumatra, Indonesia) November 25, 1833
largest earth quake 1833 Sumatra earthquake Top 10 Largest Earthquakes Ever Recorded
1833 Sumatra earthquake
The 1833′s Sumatra earthquake occurred 67 years preceded the invention of seismograph. The force of the earthquake was estimated around 8.8-9.2 magnitude and the total of casualties is unknown
7. 1906 Ecuador-Colombia earthquake, Magnitude: 8.8 (Ecuador-Colombia) January 31, 1906
largest earthquake 1906 Ecuador Colombia earthquake Top 10 Largest Earthquakes Ever Recorded
1906 Ecuador-Colombia earthquake
The 1906′s Ecuador-Colombia earthquake emerged along the border of Nazca and South American plate. It murdered 1000 lives and caused 5 meters tsunami that hit tumaco, Colombia, view second after the earth shift.
8. 2010 Chile earthquake, Magnitude: 8.8, (Maule, Chile), February 27, 2010
largest earthquake 2010 Chile Earthquake Top 10 Largest Earthquakes Ever Recorded
2010 Chile earthquake
The 2010′s Chile earthquake lasted for 3 minutes and it was shaking the entire city of Maule Region into despair. Chile earthquake is classified as megathrust earthquakes and the location of epicenter was same as 1906 Ecuador-Colombia earthquake
9. 1700 Cascadia earthquake, Magnitude: about 8.7-9.2 ,(Pacific Ocean, USA and Canada ), January 26, 1700
largest earthquake 1700 Cascadia earthquake Top 10 Largest Earthquakes Ever Recorded
1700 Cascadia earthquake
The 1700′s Cascadia earthquake was the oldest earthquake in the top 10 list and Geologist Brian Atwater with his team gathered the evidence of the earthquake on the orphan Tsunami of 1700 in 2005. The 1700′s Cascadia earthquake is classified as megathrust earthquake
10.1730 Valparaiso earthquake, Magnitude: estimated 8.7-9.0, (Valparaiso, Chile), July 8, 1730
largest earthquake 1730 Valparaiso earthquake Top 10 Largest Earthquakes Ever Recorded
1730 Valparaiso earthquake
The 1730′s Valparaiso earthquake occurred in 8:45 UTC and geologist estimated the earthquake has 8.7-force magnitude and triggered big tsunami in the lower area of Valparaiso. The number of  fatalities of the 10th largest earthquake is unknown
- M.B Surya Chaitanya


natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard. Lest's see the 10 worst natural disasters of the world...

1. Syria, 1138. Death toll: 230, 000.
aleppocitadel 10 Worst Natural Disasters
Aleppo Citadel
The Aleppo Earthquake claimed around 230, 000 lives and the citadel pictured above which was built by crusaders partially collapsed killing around 600 guards. Harim was worst hit during the earthquake in which the castle as almost completely destroyed. The fort of Atharib was also completely destroyed during the earthquake.
2. Indian Ocean, 2004. Death toll: 230, 000.
indianoceanearthquake 10 Worst Natural Disasters
Indian Ocean Earthquake
The Indian Ocean Earthquake is the second largest earthquake ever recorded measuring at a magnitude of 9.3. This devastating underwater earthquake is believed to have cause the entire planet to vibrate over half an inch! Although the earthquake was very powerful, it was the tsunamis caused by this earthquake that devastated coastal regions and claimed 230, 000 lives. 
3. China, 1975. Death toll: 231, 000.
banqiaodam 10 Worst Natural Disasters
Banqiao Dam Failure
Banqiao Dam was built to handle a flood said to occur “1 in 1000″ years however unluckily China was bombarded by a “1 in 2000″ year floor which drenched China with more than a whole years  rainfall in just 24hrs. As a consequence of the terrible rainfall a total of 64 dams failed and the Banqiao Dam was one of the dams to fail. Where the Banqiao Dam failed a giant wave swept the land covering 6 miles and peaking at heights around 23 feet! This titanic wave traveled at around 30mph and decimated the surrounding area taking 231, 000 lives.
4. China, 1976. Death toll: 242, 000.
tangshanearthquake 10 Worst Natural Disasters
Tangshan Earthquake
The Tangshan Earthquake was absolutely devastating mostly because it hit so close to Tangshan which was a large city with a population over 1 million. The magnitude of the earthquake as recorded at 7.8 and in terms of the loss of human lives the Tangshan Earthquake is one of the worst with 242, 000 lives taken. Chinese officials were scrutinized at the time for not preparing for the possibility of an earthquake.
5. China, 1642. Death toll: 300, 000.

kaifengflood2 10 Worst Natural Disasters
Kaifeng Flood
Although technically a natural disaster the Kaifeng Flood was actually a military effort. Kaifeng which is located in the Henan province was flooded by the Ming army with water from the Yellow River. This was done to prevent the rebel Li Zicheng taking over Kaifeng and halved the population from 600, 000 to around 300, 000 through the initial flooding and post flood famine.
6. India, 1839, Death toll: 300, 000.
indiacyclone 10 Worst Natural Disasters
Although not the actual cyclone, the picture above shows the power of a cyclone when unleashed in the natural world. The India Cyclone occurred out a sea and although cyclones themselves are immensely dangerous, it was the tidal wave caused by this particular cyclone that as responsible for taking over 300, 000 lives. The tidal wave completely destroyed the harbor city of Coringa taking with it around 20, 000 ships.
7. China, 1556. Death toll: 830, 000.
shaanxiearthquake 10 Worst Natural Disasters
Shaanxi Earthquake
The morning of January 23rd, 1556. Around 860, 000 lives were taken in the most devastating earthquake of all time which affected 97 countries and completely annihilated a 520 mile wide area. Looking back, the Shaanxi Earthquake is believed to have had a magnitude of around 8 however the massive loss of life is thought to have occurred because most of the local residences were built into artificial cave systems – almost all of which collapsed.
8. Bangladesh, 1970. Death toll: 500, 000 – 1, 000, 000.
bholacyclone 10 Worst Natural Disasters
Bhola Cyclone
The Bhola Cyclone is the name given to a cyclone that decimated Bangladesh in 1970 taking with it 500, 000 lives, thus making it the most deadly cyclone ever recorded. The loss of human lives didn’t stop after this however and its believed that the number may have as much as doubled in the months following the cyclone due to disease and starvation. Officials were criticized by the Pakistani government and media around the world for their poor aid efforts.
9. China, 1887. Death toll: 900, 000 – 2, 000, 000.
yellowriver 10 Worst Natural Disasters
Yellow River
The Yellow River has been mentioned previously for its devastating floods and it will certainly be mentioned again. This particular flood claimed 500, 000 lives outright and it is estimated that another 2 million people were left homeless with most succumbing to the elements and starvation due to the overwhelming destruction. The flood covered 50, 000 square miles and destroyed a missive amount of crops and residences. Although dikes were in place to protect from inevitable flooding from the yellow river, exceptional rainfall at the time proved too much to contain.
10. China, 1931. Death toll: 1 – 4 million.
yellowriver1 10 Worst Natural Disasters
Yellow River
The flood of 1931 is without a doubt the worst flood to have occurred in recent year and is often thought to be the worlds worst natural disastrous. The flood swept the flatland’s taking with it up to 4 million lives and destroying farmland, houses -literally everything in its way. The flood itself was not directly responsible for the estimated number o death as famine, disease and droughts caused by the flooding contributed to the total.
Hopefully we won’t have any natural disasters making it onto this list ever again, however disasters will strike and the best we can do is be prepared! The Yellow river is without a doubt one of the most deadly rivers in the word and a sour reminder of the power of nature.
-Surya Chaitanya

Saturday, January 15, 2011

Visiting Other Worlds! - Space Programs

Ancient astronomers saw faint points of light that seemed to move among the stars. These objects were called planets, and each one of them was given the   name of a god. In the 16th and 17th centuries, scientists came to recognize that the planets were physical bodies that revolved around the Sun. However, it was only recently, in the late 20th century, that technological advances permitted the direct study and the magnificent close-up photographs of the planets in the solar system.

The Planets
From the sightings by Galileo to the construction of space stations capable of sheltering humans, interest in revealing the mysteries of the planets has never ceased. Detailed studies of the rings of Saturn, the patches of ice at the poles of Mars, the exploration of various comets and asteroids, and the flybys of the great   moons of the major planets are among the most striking results of space exploration to date.

Mars in the Sights

There was a time when it was thought that Mars, our closest neighbor, harbored life. Perhaps for this reason it is the planet that has been most explored by  various spacecraft from the decade of the 1960s onward, and it is therefore the  one we know the best, apart from the Earth. Mariner 9 in 1971 and Vikings 1 and 2 in 1976 revealed the existence of valleys and immense volcanic mountains. In 2001 the United States launched the Mars Odyssey mission, which indicated that liquid water exists at great depths.

Mars Odyssey Mission
Named after 2001: A Space Odyssey, the probe was launched by NASA from Cape Canaveral on April 7, 2001. It entered into Martian orbit in October of the same year. The Mars Odyssey was designed for a number of functions, such as taking images in the visible and infrared spectrum, studying the chemical composition of the planet's surface, and investigating the existence of possible sources of heat.  One of its purposes was also to find traces of hydrogen and thus water on Mars.  Finally, the Mars Odyssey was used in support tasks for other Mars missions, acting as a radio-signal repeater between Earth and probes on the Martian surface.
Jupiter in Focus
The fifth planet of the solar system was visited by Pioneer 1 and 2, Voyager 1 and 2, and Cassini. However, the most significant visitor was Galileo, launched by NASA on Oct. 18, 1989. Galileo consisted of an orbiter and an atmospheric probe. After a long voyage, the atmospheric probe penetrated some 125 miles (200 km) into the atmosphere of Jupiter on Dec. 7, 1995, transmitting data about the atmosphere's chemical composition and Jupiter's meteorological activity. The orbiter continued sending information until it crashed into the gaseous giant on Sept. 21, 2003.

Galileo was designed to study the atmosphere of Jupiter, its satellites, and the magnetosphere of the planet. To get there, it did not use a direct path but had to perform an assisted trajectory, passing by Venus on Feb. 10, 1990. Then it flew by the Earth twice and arrived at Jupiter on Dec. 7, 1995. The probe succeeded in sending information of unprecedented quality with a low-gain antenna about the satellites of Jupiter, its moon Europa, and various examples of volcanic activity in its moon Io. It also contributed to the discovery of 21 new satellites around Jupiter. The mission was deactivated in 2003, and the vehicle was sent to crash into the planet. The purpose of this termination was to avoid future collision with its moon Europa that might have contaminated its ice; scientists believe that extraterrestrial microscopic life may have evolved on Europa.

A View of Saturn

The longedΩfor return to Saturn was the result of a scientific alliance between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). On Oct. 15, 1997, after a number of years of development, the fruit of this collaboration lifted off toward this enormous gas giant. The mission of Cassini, the mother ship, was the exploration of Saturn. It carried a smaller probe, Huygens that was to land on Saturn's largest moon, Titan, and transmits images and sounds from the surface. The Huygens probe accomplished this prodigious feat, demonstrating once again the capacity of humans to respond to the challenge of frontiers.
The trajectory of Cassini-Huygens was long and complicated, because it included strategic flybys of Venus (1998 and 1999), Earth (1999), and Jupiter (2000). Each one of these encounters was used to increase the craft's velocity and to send the spacecraft in the appropriate direction (a maneuver known as a gravity assist). Finally, and after almost seven years, traveling some 2.2 billion miles (3.5 billion km), the spacecraft arrived at its destination. It brought an end to the long wait since the last visit of a probe to Saturn—the 1981 flyby by Voyager 2.

Toward Venus and Pluto

The New Horizons mission, launched by NASA in January 2006, is a voyage that will carry the spacecraft to the limits of the solar system and beyond. The most important goal of the voyage is to visit Pluto, a dwarf planet (a designation made in 2006 by the International Astronomical Union). The ship flew past Jupiter to gain enough speed to get to Pluto in the year 2015. It will have six months to make observations of Pluto, after which it will continue its voyage toward the region of the solar system known as the Kuiper belt.

New Horizons Mission
An unmanned space mission by NASA whose destination is to explore Pluto and the Kuiper belt. The probe was launched from Cape Canaveral on Jan. 19, 2006. It flew past Jupiter in February 2007 to take advantage of the planet's gravity and increase its speed. It will arrive at Pluto on July 14, 2015. Finally, the probe will fly by one or more objects in the Kuiper belt. The principal objectives of the mission are to study the form and structure of Pluto and its satellite Charon, analyze the variability of the temperature on Pluto's surface, look for additional satellites around Pluto, and obtain high-resolution images. The power source for the spacecraft is a radioisotope thermoelectric generator.

The Venus Express Mission
Venus is a little smaller than the Earth and has a dense atmosphere. Because it is located at slightly more than 67 million miles (108 million km) from the Sun, it receives almost twice the solar energy as the surface of the Earth. The
Venus Express is the first mission of the European Space Agency to Venus. The scientific aims include studying in detail the atmosphere, the plasma medium, the surface of the planet, and surface-atmosphere interactions. It was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome on Nov. 9, 2005. The mission will last two Venus days, some 500 terrestrial days. The spacecraft entered into orbit on April 11, 2006.

Closer to the Sun

The space probe Ulysses was launched from the space shuttle on Oct. 6, 1990. It completed its first orbit around the Sun in 1997 and since then has carried out one of the most in-depth studies ever about our star. The probe's orbits allow it to study the heliosphere at all latitudes, from the equator to the poles, in both the northern and southern hemispheres of the Sun. The joint NASA and ESA mission is the first to orbit around the poles of the Sun. It orbits the Sun at 10 miles per second (15.4 km/s).

 - Surya Chaitanya

Friday, January 14, 2011

The End of the Dinosaurs - Cretaceous and Paleogene periods

The End of the Dinosaurs

Dinosaurs reigned over the Earth until about 65 million years ago. All of a sudden they died out because of a drastic change in the conditions that made their life possible. The most reasonable hypothesis for this change attributes it to the collision of a large asteroid or comet with the Earth. The resulting fire devastated all of what today are the North and South American continents. The impact raised huge dust clouds that remained suspended in the air for months, darkening the planet. At the same time, sulfur, chlorine, and nitrogen was mixed into dense clouds, causing killing acid rains.

More Theories About the “K-T Boundary”

The period between the Cretaceous and Paleogene periods, known as the “K-T boundary,” marks the end of the era of the dinosaurs. Although the impact theory is widely accepted, other theories suggest that there was a great change in climate that caused dinosaurs to become extinct very slowly as the shallow seas withdrew from solid land. According to the defenders of these theories, the dinosaurs were being reduced in variety and number throughout a period that lasted millions of years. The large meteorite of Chicxulub, according to this hypothesis, would have fallen some 300 thousand years before the end of the Cretaceous Period. It has also been hypothesized that mammals proliferated before the extinction and fed on reptile eggs, or that the plants  eaten by the large sauropods succumbed to diseases.

Profound Evidence

In the Mexican town of Chicxulub, on the Yucatán Peninsula, there is a depression 62 miles (100 km) in  diameter that is attributed to the impact of a meteorite about 65 million years ago. The layers of rock that  make up the soil support this theory and make it possible to see what occurred before and after the impact.  

Volcanic Eruptions 

Another theory relates the massive extinction with the appearance of prolonged volcanic eruptions on Earth  that emitted asphyxiating gases and darkened the skies with dust. Thousands of cubic miles of volcanic rock  found on a plateau in DeccanIndia, support this theory. 

Space Cataclysm 

Every 67 million years, the Solar System crosses through the plane of the Milky Way. At those times some  stars in the Milky Way can cause comets to escape from the Oort cloud and enter the inner Solar System. It  is possible that one of these bodies could have impacted the Earth.  

 - Surya Chaitanya

Thursday, January 13, 2011

Wonders of India

Taj Mahal:

The Taj Mahal is considered the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Persian, Ottoman, Indian, and Islamic architectural styles. In 1983, the Taj Mahal became a UNESCO World Heritage Site and was cited as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage." 

The Wonder of India for "Peace and Harmony" : The Golden Temple 

The Golden Temple is located in Amritsar, Punjab. The door panes are decorated with artistic style. It opens on to the bridge that leads to the main building of Sri Harmandir Sahib. It is 202 feet in length and 21 feet in width. Its architecture represents a unique harmony between the Muslims and the Hindu architecture. The fourth Guru of Sikhism, [Guru Ram Das], excavated a tank in 1577 which subsequently became known as Amritsar (meaning: Pool of the Nectar of Immortality), giving its name to the city that grew around it. In due course, a Sikh edifice, Harmandir Sahib ( Temple of God), was constructed in the middle of this tank which became the supreme centre of Sikhism. The Golden Temple or Darbar Sahib, is the most sacred temple for Sikhs. It is a symbol of the magnificence and strength of the Sikh people all over the world. 
The Spiritual Wonder of India : Tawang Monastery

Located at an elevation of 10,000 feet in Tawang Town in Arunachal Pradesh. The assembly hall has a 8.3 m high Golden Buddha statue. Is 3 storeys high, occupies an area of 140 sq mt and houses 65 residential buildings. The kakaling (entrance gate) is a large hut shaped structure made of stone. Founded by Merak Lama Lodre Gyatso in 1681. The Tawang Monastery is of the Gelugpa sect of Buddhist and is the largest centre for Buddhist cultural studies. Tawang Monastery is the largest Buddhist monastery in India. Houses the Parkhang Library containing 400 year old Kangyur manuscripts.

7 Wonders of India

1. Khajuraho : 

Khajuraho is a village in Madhya Pradesh, located in Chhatarpur District, about 620 kilometers southeast of Delhi.
• The Khajuraho temples adhere to a northern Indian shikhara temple style and often to a Panchayatana plan or layout.
• Kandariya Mahadeva, comprises eighty-four shikharas, the main being 116 feet from the ground level.
• The Khajuraho temples were built over a span of a hundred years, from 950A.D. to 1050A.D. They were rediscovered during the late 19th century. 
• Khajuraho has the largest group of medieval Hindu and Jain temples, famous for their everyday life sculpture. 

2. Dholavira Site :

• Located in Kutch district
• All its buildings are almost exclusively built out of brick.
• The ancient site at Dholavira, is flanked by two storm water channels; the Mansar in the north, and the Manhar in the south.
• Reservoirs are cut through stones vertically. They are about 7 meter deep and 79 meter long.
• The site was occupied from about 2900 BC for about a millennium, declining slowly after about 2100 BC, briefly abandoned and then reoccupied, finally by villagers among its ruins, until about 1450.
• A sign board with ten huge Indus signs found on the floor of a room at the North Gate was probably originally displayed above the gateway.

3. Meenakshi Temple :

• Located in the second largest city of Tamil Nadu i.e Madurai.
• The temple complex is within a high-walled enclosure, at the core of which are the two sanctums for Meenakshi and Sundareshwara, surrounded by a number of smaller shrines and grand pillared halls.
• The original temple was built by Kulasekara Pandya, but the credit for making the temple as splendid as it is today goes to the Nayaks.
• The Nayaks ruled Madurai from the 16th to the 18th century and left a majestic imprint of their rule in the Meenakshi - Sundareswarar Temple.
• The enormous temple complex is dedicated to Shiva, known as
Sundareshvara and his consort Parvatior Meenakshi.
• According to legend Madurai is the actual site where the wedding between Shiva and Meenakshi took place. 

4. Nalanda University : 

• Located 55 miles from Patna in Bihar.
• Nalanda was the largest residential centre of learning in the world with a 9 storied library.
• The monasteries are built in old Kushan architectural style, in a row of cells around a courtyard.
• It was the Buddhist center of learning from 427 to 1197 CE partly under the Pala Empire.
• It is believed that Buddha visited Nalanda during his last tour through Magadha, and it was there that Sariputta uttered his lion`s roar, affirming his faith in the Buddha.
University of Nalanda was established in 450 CE under the patronage of the Gupta emperors, notably Kumara Gupta.
• Nava Nalanda Mahavihara is devoted to the study and research in Pali Literature and Buddhism.

5. Sun Temple, Konark :

• Situated at a distance from the famous religious and tourist centre of Puri (35 Km.) and the capital city of Bhubaneswar (65 Km).

• The entire temple was designed in the shape of a colossal
chariot with seven horses and twenty four wheels, each about 10 feet in diameter, with a set of spokes and elaborate carvings.

6. Jaiselmer Fort :

• It is situated in Jaisalmer city in Rajasthan.
• The fort stands admist the golden stretches of the great Thar Desert, on Trikuta Hill and had been the scene of many battles.
• It is also known as the "Golden Fort".
• It is built of sandstone and is one of the largest forts in Rajasthan.
• It was built in 1156 AD by the Bhati Rajput ruler Rawal Jaisal, from where it derives it name.
• At one point of time the entire population of Jaisalmer used to live within the fort; but with the increase in the population, people was forced to move out and find shelter under the foot of the Trikuta Hill.
• The main attractions inside the fort are: Raj Mahal (Royal palace), Jain temples, Laxminath temple, 4 massive gateways, Merchant Havelis.

7. Red Fort : 

• Located in Chandni Chowk, Delhi.
• Thick red sandstone walls, bulging with turrets and bastions, have withstood the vagaries of time and nature.
• The wall is 2.5 km long and the height varies from 16 meters on the river side to 33 meters towards the city.
• Diwan-e-am is the large pavilion which was used for public imperial audiences.
• Diwan-e-khas is the decorated hall which was used for ministerial and court gatherings.
• The Red Fort and the city of Shahjahanabad was constructed by the Emperor Shah Jahan in 1639 A.D.
• Every year on Independence Day (15th August) the Prime Minister
of India hoists the national flag and addresses the nation, from the ramparts of Red fort.

- - Surya Chaitanya